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2. In 1986, University of Massachusetts Amherst Chancellor Randolph Bromery donated a 1773 first edition ofWheatleys Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral to the W. E. B. . Of the numerous letters she wrote to national and international political and religious leaders, some two dozen notes and letters are extant. It included a forward, signed by John Hancock and other Boston notablesas well as a portrait of Wheatleyall designed to prove that the work was indeed written by a black woman. As Michael Schmidt notes in his wonderful The Lives Of The Poets, at the age of seventeen she had her first poem published: an elegy on the death of an evangelical minister. Our editors will review what youve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Wheatley returned to Boston in September 1773 because Susanna Wheatley had fallen ill. Phillis Wheatley was freed the following month; some scholars believe that she made her freedom a condition of her return from England. On January 2 of that same year, she published An Elegy, Sacred to the Memory of that Great Divine, The Reverend and Learned Dr. Samuel Cooper, just a few days after the death of the Brattle Street churchs pastor. . She was purchased by the Wheatley family of Boston, who taught her to read and write, and encouraged her poetry when they saw her talent. We and our partners use data for Personalised ads and content, ad and content measurement, audience insights and product development. In 1772, she sought to publish her first . Your email address will not be published. Hail, happy Saint, on thy immortal throne! In the month of August 1761, in want of a domestic, Susanna Wheatley, wife of prominent Boston tailor John Wheatley, purchased a slender, frail female child for a trifle because the captain of the slave ship believed that the waif was terminally ill, and he wanted to gain at least a small profit before she died. Date accessed. In Phillis Wheatley and the Romantic Age, Shields contends that Wheatley was not only a brilliant writer but one whose work made a significant impression on renowned Europeans of the Romantic age, such as Samuel Taylor Coleridge, who borrowed liberally from her works, particularly in his famous distinction between fancy and imagination. And thought in living characters to paint, In To the University of Cambridge in New England (probably the first poem she wrote but not published until 1773), Wheatleyindicated that despite this exposure, rich and unusual for an American slave, her spirit yearned for the intellectual challenge of a more academic atmosphere. Cease, gentle muse! Phillis Wheatley, "An Answer to the Rebus" Before she was brought from Africa to America, Phillis Wheatley must have learned the rudiments of reading and writing in her native, so- called "Pagan land" (Poems 18). A Boston tailor named John Wheatley bought her and she became his family servant. Her writing style embraced the elegy, likely from her African roots, where it was the role of girls to sing and perform funeral dirges. Remember, Christians, Negros, black as Cain, In using heroic couplets for On Being Brought from Africa to America, Wheatley was drawing upon this established English tradition, but also, by extension, lending a seriousness to her story and her moral message which she hoped her white English readers would heed. Phillis W heatly, the first African A merican female poet, published her work when she . [1] Acquired by the 2000s by Bickerstaffs Books, Maps, booksellers, Maine; Purchased in the 2000s by Ted Steinbock, private collector, Kentucky; Privately purchased in 2020 by Museum of the Bible, Washington, DC. The first installment of a special series about the intersections between poetry and poverty. Born around 1753 in Gambia, Africa, Wheatley was captured by slave traders and brought to America in 1761. Her poems had been in circulation since 1770, but her first book, Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral, would not be published until 1773. Follow. Luebering is Vice President, Editorial at Encyclopaedia Britannica. She wrote several letters to ministers and others on liberty and freedom. Be victory ours and generous freedom theirs. The article describes the goal . A slave, as a child she was purchased by John Wheatley, merchant tailor, of Boston, Mass. Copyright 1999 - 2023 GradeSaver LLC. Merle A. Richmond points out that economic conditions in the colonies during and after the war were harsh, particularly for free blacks, who were unprepared to compete with whites in a stringent job market. Phillis Wheatley was the author of the first known book of poetry by a Black woman, published in London in 1773. . Phillis Wheatley was both the second published African-American poet and first published African-American woman. There was a time when I thought that African-American literature did not exist before Frederick Douglass. However, she believed that slavery was the issue that prevented the colonists from achieving true heroism. Reproduction page. Born in West Africa, she was enslaved as a child and brought to Boston in 1761. Download. And Heavenly Freedom spread her gold Ray. Wheatley was fortunate to receive the education she did, when so many African slaves fared far worse, but she also clearly had a nature aptitude for writing. All the themes in her poetry are reflection of her life as a slave and her ardent resolve for liberation. To S. M., a Young African Painter, on Seeing His Works is a poem by Phillis Wheatley (c. 1753-84) about an artist, Scipio Moorhead, an enslaved African artist living in America. The girl who was to be named Phillis Wheatley was captured in West Africa and taken to Boston by slave traders in 1761. Corrections? The word diabolic means devilish, or of the Devil, continuing the Christian theme. Born in Senegambia, she was sold into slavery at the age of 7 and transported to North America. She is the Boston Writers of Color Group Coordinator. PhillisWheatleywas born around 1753, possibly in Senegal or The Gambia, in West Africa. These words demonstrate the classically-inspired and Christianity-infused artistry of poet Phillis Wheatley, through whose work a deep love of liberty and quest for freedom rings. A house slave as a child Wheatley casts her origins in Africa as non-Christian (Pagan is a capacious term which was historically used to refer to anyone or anything not strictly part of the Christian church), and perhaps controversially to modern readers she states that it was mercy or kindness that brought her from Africa to America. Chicago - Michals, Debra. Although she was an enslaved person, Phillis Wheatley Peters was one of the best-known poets in pre-19th century America. Indeed, she even met George Washington, and wrote him a poem. No more to tell of Damons tender sighs, She learned both English and Latin. Beginning in the 1970's, Phillis Wheatley began to receive the attention she deserves. Acquired by J. H. Burton, unknown owner. Common Core State Standards Text Exemplars, A Change of World, Episode 1: The Wilderness, The Difficult Miracle of Black Poetry in America, To a Gentleman and Lady on the Death of the Lady's Brother and Sister, and a Child of the Name, To S. M. A Young African Painter, On Seeing His Works, To the Right Honorable William, Earl of Dartmouth, Benjamin Griffith Brawley, Note on Wheatley, in, Carl Bridenbaugh, "The First Published Poems of Phillis Wheatley,", Mukhtar Ali Isani, "The British Reception of Wheatley's Poems on Various Subjects,", Sarah Dunlap Jackson, "Letters of Phillis Wheatley and Susanna Wheatley,", Robert C. Kuncio, "Some Unpublished Poems of Phillis Wheatley,", Thomas Oxley, "Survey of Negro Literature,", Carole A. For instance, these bold lines in her poetic eulogy to General David Wooster castigate patriots who confess Christianity yet oppress her people: But how presumptuous shall we hope to find To aid thy pencil, and thy verse conspire! With the death of her benefactor, Wheatleyslipped toward this tenuous life. Listen to June Jordan read "The Difficult Miracle of Black Poetry in America: Something Like a Sonnet for PhillisWheatley.". Wheatley urges Moorhead to turn to the heavens for his inspiration (and subject-matter). To thee complaints of grievance are unknown; We hear no more the music of thy tongue, Thy wonted auditories cease to throng. Note how endless spring (spring being a time when life is continuing to bloom rather than dying) continues the idea of deathless glories and immortal fame previously mentioned. She was enslaved by a tailor, John Wheatley, and his wife, Susanna. Wheatley supported the American Revolution, and she wrote a flattering poem in 1775 to George Washington. Armenti, Peter. How did those prospects give my soul delight, Phillis Wheatley never recorded her own account of her life. Her first book, Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral, in which many of her poems were first printed, was published there in 1773. During the year of her death (1784), she was able to publish, under the name Phillis Peters, a masterful 64-line poem in a pamphlet entitled Liberty and Peace, which hailed America as Columbia victorious over Britannia Law. Proud of her nations intense struggle for freedom that, to her, bespoke an eternal spiritual greatness, Wheatley Peters ended the poem with a triumphant ring: Britannia owns her Independent Reign, At the end of her life, Wheatley was working as a servant, and she died in poverty in 1784. Or rising radiance of Auroras eyes, Phillis Wheatley earned acclaim as a Black poet, and historians recognize her as one of the first Black and enslaved persons in the United States, to publish a book of poems. Required fields are marked *. the solemn gloom of night In a 1774 letter to British philanthropist John Thornton . Perhaps the most notable aspect of Wheatleys poem is that only the first half of it is about Moorheads painting. Who are the pious youths the poet addresses in stanza 1? Phillis Wheatley wrote this poem on the death of the Rev. However, her book of poems was published in London, after she had travelled across the Atlantic to England, where she received patronage from a wealthy countess. National Women's History Museum. George McMichael and others, editors of the influential two-volume Anthology of American Literature (1974,. Let virtue reign and then accord our prayers In a filthy apartment, in an obscure part of the metropolis . In her epyllion Niobe in Distress for Her Children Slain by Apollo, from Ovids Metamorphoses, Book VI, and from a view of the Painting of Mr. Richard Wilson, she not only translates Ovid but adds her own beautiful lines to extend the dramatic imagery. Through Pope's translation of Homer, she also developed a taste for Greek mythology, all which have an enormous influence on her work, with much of her poetry dealing with important figures of her day. By the time she was 18, Wheatleyhad gathered a collection of 28 poems for which she, with the help of Mrs. Wheatley, ran advertisements for subscribers in Boston newspapers in February 1772. She sees her new life as, in part, a deliverance into the hands of God, who will now save her soul. Upon arrival, she was sold to the Wheatley family in Boston, Massachusetts. If accepted, your analysis will be added to this page of American Poems. eighteen-year-old, African slave and domestic servant by the name of Phillis Wheatley. Phillis Wheatley, 'On Virtue'. When the colonists were apparently unwilling to support literature by an African, she and the Wheatleys turned in frustration to London for a publisher. Between October and December 1779, with at least the partial motive of raising funds for her family, she ran six advertisements soliciting subscribers for 300 pages in Octavo, a volume Dedicated to the Right Hon. Published as a broadside and a pamphlet in Boston, Newport, and Philadelphia, the poem was published with Ebenezer Pembertons funeral sermon for Whitefield in London in 1771, bringing her international acclaim. The poem was printed in 1784, not long before her own death. The award-winning poet breaks down the transformative potential of being a hater, mourning the VS hosts Danez and Franny chop it up with poet, editor, professor, and bald-headed cutie Nate Marshall. A progressive social reformer and activist, Jane Addams was on the frontline of the settlement house movement and was the first American woman to wina Nobel Peace Prize. 'On Being Brought from Africa to America' is a poem by Phillis Wheatley (c. 1753-84), who was the first African-American woman to publish a book of poetry: Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral appeared in 1773 when she was probably still in her early twenties. On Being Brought from Africa to America is written in iambic pentameter and, specifically, heroic couplets: rhyming couplets of iambic pentameter, rhymed aabbccdd. Phillis Wheatley was the first globally recognized African American female poet. The issue of race occupies a privileged position in the . Perhaps Wheatleys own poem may even work with Moorheads own innate talent, enabling him to achieve yet greater things with his painting. Her first name Phillis was derived from the ship that brought her to America, the Phillis.. 3. Wheatley was the first African-American woman to publish a book of poetry: Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral appeared in 1773 when she Pride in her African heritage was also evident. To support her family, she worked as a scrubwoman in a boardinghouse while continuing to write poetry. They had three children, none of whom lived past infancy. Phillis Wheatley Peters died, uncared for and alone. That theres a God, that theres a Saviour too: Omissions? what peace, what joys are hers t impartTo evry holy, evry upright heart!Thrice blest the man, who, in her sacred shrine,Feels himself shelterd from the wrath divine!if(typeof ez_ad_units!='undefined'){ez_ad_units.push([[250,250],'americanpoems_com-medrectangle-3','ezslot_2',103,'0','0'])};__ez_fad_position('div-gpt-ad-americanpoems_com-medrectangle-3-0'); Your email address will not be published. To a Lady on her coming to North-America with her Son, for the Recovery of her Health To a Lady on her remarkable, Preservation in an Hurricane in North Carolina To a Lady and her Children, on the Death of her Son and their Brother To a Gentleman and Lady on the Death of the Lady's Brother and Sister, and a Child of the Name Avis, aged one Year Come, dear Phillis, be advised, To drink Samarias flood; There nothing that shall suffice But Christs redeeming blood. Hammon writes: "God's tender . May be refind, and join th angelic train. Described by Merle A. Richmond as a man of very handsome person and manners, who wore a wig, carried a cane, and quite acted out the gentleman, Peters was also called a remarkable specimen of his race, being a fluent writer, a ready speaker. Peterss ambitions cast him as shiftless, arrogant, and proud in the eyes of some reporters, but as a Black man in an era that valued only his brawn, Peterss business acumen was simply not salable. To acquire permission to use this image, Phillis Wheatley. Library of Congress, March 1, 2012. Brusilovski, Veronica. In 1773, Phillis Wheatley's collection of poems, Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral, was published in London, England. Despite all of the odds stacked against her, Phillis Wheatley prevailed and made a difference in the world that would shape the world of writing and poetry for the better. Indeed, in terms of its poem, Wheatleys To S. M., a Young African Painter, on Seeing His Works still follows these classical modes: it is written in heroic couplets, or rhyming couplets composed of iambic pentameter. By PHILLIS, a Servant Girl of 17 Years of Age, Belonging to Mr. J. WHEATLEY, of Boston: - And has been but 9 Years in this Country from Africa. While yet o deed ungenerous they disgrace Read the E-Text for Phillis Wheatley: Poems, Style, structure, and influences on poetry, View Wikipedia Entries for Phillis Wheatley: Poems. The whole world is filled with "Majestic grandeur" in . Efforts to publish a second book of poems failed. In "On Imagination," Wheatley writes about the personified Imagination, and creates a powerful allegory for slavery, as the speaker's fancy is expanded by imagination, only for Winter, representing a slave-owner, to prevent the speaker from living out these imaginings. Best summary PDF, themes, and quotes. Also, in the poem "To the Right Honorable William, Earl of Dartmouth" by Phillis Wheatley another young girl is purchased into slavery. The poems that best demonstrate her abilities and are most often questioned by detractors are those that employ classical themes as well as techniques. Boston: Published by Geo. The Wheatley family educated her and within sixteen months of her . Wheatleywas kept in a servants placea respectable arms length from the Wheatleys genteel circlesbut she had experienced neither slaverys treacherous demands nor the harsh economic exclusions pervasive in a free-black existence. She often spoke in explicit biblical language designed to move church members to decisive action. In heaven, Wheatleys poetic voice will make heavenly sounds, because she is so happy. Enslavers and abolitionists both read her work; the former to convince theenslaved population to convert, the latter as proof of the intellectual abilities of people of color. 1. MNEME begin. Taught MY be-NIGHT-ed SOUL to UN-der-STAND. Diffusing light celestial and refin'd. By ev'ry tribe beneath the rolling sun. Save. II. Phillis Wheatley, Slave Poet of Colonial America: a story of her life, About, Inc., part of The New York Times Company, n.d.. African Americans and the End of Slavery in Massachusetts: Phillis Wheatley. Massachusetts Historical Society. Lets take a closer look at On Being Brought from Africa to America, line by line: Twas mercy brought me from my Pagan land. Wheatleyalso used her poetry as a conduit for eulogies and tributes regarding public figures and events. Phillis Wheatley: Poems Summary and Analysis of "On Imagination" Summary The speaker personifies Imagination as a potent and wondrous queen in the first stanza. Though Wheatley generally avoided making the topic of slavery explicit in her poetry, her identity as an enslaved woman was always present, even if her experience of slavery may have been atypical. To S. M., a Young African Painter, on Seeing His Works: summary. These societal factors, rather than any refusal to work on Peterss part, were perhaps most responsible for the newfound poverty that Wheatley Peters suffered in Wilmington and Boston, after they later returned there. (170) After reading the entire poem--and keeping in mind the social dynamics between the author and her white audience--find some other passages in the poem that Jordan might approve of as . Remember, Christians, Negros, black as Cain. Wheatley begins her ode to Moorheads talents by praising his ability to depict what his heart (or lab[ou]ring bosom) wants to paint. When death comes and gives way to the everlasting day of the afterlife (in heaven), both Wheatley and Moorhead will be transported around heaven on the wings (pinions) of angels (seraphic). O Virtue, smiling in immortal green, Do thou exert thy pow'r, and change the scene; Be thine employ to guide my future days, And mine to pay the tribute of my praise. Some view our sable race with scornful eye,, National Women's History Museum - Biography of Phillis Wheatley, Poetry Foundation - Biography of Phillis Wheatley, Academy of American Poets - Biography of Phillis Wheatley, BlackPast - Biography of Phillis Wheatley, Phillis Wheatley - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Phillis Wheatley - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), An Elegiac Poem, on the Death of the Celebrated DivineGeorge Whitefield, On Being Brought from Africa to America, Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral, Phillis Wheatley's To the University of Cambridge, in New England, Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral. Sold into slavery as a child, Wheatley became the first African American author of a book of poetry when her words were published in 1773 . Wheatleys first poem to appear in print was On Messrs. Hussey and Coffin (1767), about sailors escaping disaster. Like many others who scattered throughout the Northeast to avoid the fighting during the Revolutionary War, the Peterses moved temporarily from Boston to Wilmington, Massachusetts, shortly after their marriage. The first episode in a special series on the womens movement, Something like a sonnet for Phillis Wheatley. The students will discuss diversity within the economics profession and in the federal government, and the functions of the Federal Reserve System and U. S. monetary policy, by reviewing a historic timeline and analyzing the acts of Janet Yellen. To S. M., a Young African Painter, on Seeing His Works: analysis. This is a noble endeavour, and one which Wheatley links with her own art: namely, poetry. This collection included her poem On Recollection, which appeared months earlier in The Annual Register here. In this section of the Notes he addresses views of race and relates his theory of race to both the aesthetic potential of slaves as well as their political futures. MNEME begin. Captured in Africa, Wheatley mastered English and produced a body of work that gained attention in both the colonies and England. Religion was also a key influence, and it led Protestants in America and England to enjoy her work. Du Bois Library as its two-millionth volume. 14 Followers. Then, in an introductory African-American literature course as a domestic exchange student at Spelman College, I read several poems from Phillis Wheatley's Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral (1773). Heroic couplets were used, especially in the eighteenth century when Phillis Wheatley was writing, for verse which was serious and weighty: heroic couplets were so named because they were used in verse translations of classical epic poems by Homer and Virgil, i.e., the serious and grand works of great literature. Cooper was the pastor of the Brattle Square Church (the fourth Church) in Boston, and was active in the cause of the Revolution. In addition to classical and neoclassical techniques, Wheatley applied biblical symbolism to evangelize and to comment on slavery. (The first American edition of this book was not published until two years after her death.) While Wheatleywas recrossing the Atlantic to reach Mrs. Wheatley, who, at the summers end, had become seriously ill, Bell was circulating the first edition of Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral (1773), the first volume of poetry by an African American published in modern times. Interesting Literature is a participant in the Amazon EU Associates Programme, an affiliate advertising programme designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by linking to Phillis Wheatley, in full Phillis Wheatley Peters, (born c. 1753, present-day Senegal?, West Africadied December 5, 1784, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.), the first Black woman to become a poet of note in the United States. Her love of virgin America as well as her religious fervor is further suggested by the names of those colonial leaders who signed the attestation that appeared in some copies of Poems on Various Subjects to authenticate and support her work: Thomas Hutchinson, governor of Massachusetts; John Hancock; Andrew Oliver, lieutenant governor; James Bowdoin; and Reverend Mather Byles. Even at the young age of thirteen, she was writing religious verse. In 1765, when Phillis Wheatley was about eleven years old, she wrote a letter to Reverend Samson Occum, a Mohegan Indian and an ordained Presbyterian minister. Richmond's trenchant summary sheds light on the abiding prob-lems in Wheatley's reception: first, that criticism of her work has been 72. . During the first six weeks after their return to Boston, Wheatley Peters stayed with one of her nieces in a bombed-out mansion that was converted to a day school after the war. While her Christian faith was surely genuine, it was also a "safe" subject for an enslaved poet. And in an outspoken letter to the Reverend Samson Occom, written after Wheatley Peters was free and published repeatedly in Boston newspapers in 1774, she equates American slaveholding to that of pagan Egypt in ancient times: Otherwise, perhaps, the Israelites had been less solicitous for their Freedom from Egyptian Slavery: I dont say they would have been contented without it, by no Means, for in every human Breast, God has implanted a Principle, which we call Love of freedom; it is impatient of Oppression, and pants for Deliverance; and by the Leave of our modern Egyptians I will assert that the same Principle lives in us. A Wheatley relative later reported that the family surmised the girlwho was of slender frame and evidently suffering from a change of climate, nearly naked, with no other covering than a quantity of dirty carpet about herto be about seven years old from the circumstances of shedding her front teeth. The poet asks, and Phillis can't refuse / To shew th'obedience of the Infant muse. Recent scholarship shows that Wheatley Peters wrote perhaps 145 poems (most of which would have been published if the encouragers she begged for had come forth to support the second volume), but this artistic heritage is now lost, probably abandoned during Peterss quest for subsistence after her death. "Poetic economies: Phillis Wheatley and the production of the black artist in the early Atlantic world. The poem begins with the speaker describing the beauty of the setting sun and how it casts glory on the surrounding landscape. Phillis Wheatley was the first African American woman to publish a collection of poetry. Phillis Wheatley was an avid student of the Bible and especially admired the works of Alexander Pope (1688-1744), the British neoclassical writer. And breathing figures learnt from thee to live, 04 Mar 2023 21:00:07 In less than two years, Phillis had mastered English. Some view our sable race with scornful eye, Wheatley's poems, which bear the influence of eighteenth-century English verse - her preferred form was the heroic couplet used by Visit Contact Us Page Phillis Wheatley (c. 1753-84), who was the first African-American woman to publish a book of poetry: Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral appeared in 1773 when she was probably still in her early twenties. if(typeof ez_ad_units!='undefined'){ez_ad_units.push([[300,250],'americanpoems_com-medrectangle-1','ezslot_6',119,'0','0'])};__ez_fad_position('div-gpt-ad-americanpoems_com-medrectangle-1-0');report this ad, 2000-2022 Gunnar Bengtsson American Poems. They have also charted her notable use of classicism and have explicated the sociological intent of her biblical allusions. Though she continued writing, she published few new poems after her marriage. O thou bright jewel in my aim I strive. Eighteenth-century verse, at least until the Romantics ushered in a culture shift in the 1790s, was dominated by classical themes and models: not just ancient Greek and Roman myth and literature, but also the emphasis on order, structure, and restraint which had been so prevalent in literature produced during the time of Augustus, the Roman emperor. The illustrious francine j. harris is in the proverbial building, and we couldnt be more thrilled. And there my muse with heavnly transport glow: Wheatley supported the American Revolution, and she wrote a flattering poem in 1775 to George Washington. 1773. Poems on Various Subjects revealed that Wheatleysfavorite poetic form was the couplet, both iambic pentameter and heroic. Without Wheatley's ingenious writing based off of her grueling and sorrowful life, many poets and writers of today's culture may not exist. Which particular poem are you referring to? 'On Being Brought from Africa to America' by Phillis Wheatley is a short, eight-line poem that is structured with a rhyme scheme of AABBCCDD. After being kidnapped from West Africa and enslaved in Boston, Phillis Wheatley became the first African American and one of the first women to publish a book of poetry in the colonies in 1773. I confess I had no idea who she was before I read her name, poetry, or looked . Pingback: 10 of the Best Poems by African-American Poets Interesting Literature. A sample of her work includes On the Affray in King Street on the Evening of the 5th of March, 1770 [the Boston Massacre]; On Being Brought from Africa to America; To the University of Cambridge in New England; On the Death of that Celebrated Divine, and Eminent Servant of Jesus Christ, the Reverend and Learned George Whitefield; and His Excellency General Washington. In November 1773, theWheatleyfamily emancipated Phillis, who married John Peters in 1778. Susanna and JohnWheatleypurchased the enslaved child and named her after the schooner on which she had arrived. Her tongue will sing of nobler themes than those found in classical (pagan, i.e., non-Christian) myth, such as in the story of Damon and Pythias and the myth of Aurora, the goddess of the dawn. In 1773, with financial support from the English Countess of Huntingdon, Wheatley traveled to London with the Wheatley's sonto publish her first collection of poems, Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moralthe first book written by a black woman in America.

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phillis wheatley on recollection summary